|| Footnotes to NAIHC WHITEPAPER:
HEMP & MARIJUANA
MYTHS & REALITIES
David P. West, Ph.D
1.Hemp, and fibers such as flax, kenaf, and jute, are "bast fibers." The fiber is in the plant's stem, in contrast to seed hair (cotton) or leaf (sisal, abacá). "Bast fibers are derived from that portion of the dicotyledonous plant lying between the outer bark or epidermis and the woody central cylinder" from Whitford, A. C. 1947. Matthew's Textile Fibers, H. R. Mauersberger, ed. Wiley and Sons. NY p 305. The "woody central core," after being broken and separated from the fiber, is commonly called "hurds" in the case of hemp and "shives" for flax.
2.Over thirty are listed by Montgomery. [Montgomery, B. 1954. The Bast Fibers. In H. R. Mauersberger (ed.), Matthews' Textile Fibers. Wiley and Son, N.Y. 257-359.] This botanical confusion continues to plague us. The federal government lumps together imports of Sunn hemp (Crotalaria) with true hemp, Cannabis sativa, in its "harmonization number" (an indexing number used to track international trade). Thus, the figures in the report represent an aggregate sum of trade in these two fibers, rather than reflecting trends in hemp production solely, as intended. This can and does lead to confusion. A recent study of international trade and production of hemp undertaken by a researcher at the University of Kentucky-Louisville, for instance, failed to recognize this distinction. At a gathering at a recent DEA-sponsored forum called "Marijuana Conference: Myths, Concerns, Facts," the researcher announced, "Sunn hemp is a variety of Cannabis sativa grown in India." (Vantresse, V. Jefferson City, Missouri, Nov 5, 1997.)
This botanical confusion can be found in all camps. When a Native American mummy was found in Utah wrapped in fabric that the archeologist called "hemp," drug enthusiasts seized on it as evidence of pre-Columbian Cannabis in the New World. It turned out to be Apocynum cannabinum (Dogbane), also called "Indian hemp." (To further the semantic confusion, "Indian hemp" has also been used for Cannabis from India, C. indicus, the psychotropic type.)
3.Pollan, M. 1997. Opium Made Easy: One gardener's encounter with the War on Drugs. Harper's Magazine, April, 35-58.
4."Cannabis" was already a common word for this plant and its cognates can be found throughout Indo-European languages as far back as Sanskrit.
5.Stern, W. T. 1970. The Cannabis Plant: Botanical Characteristics. In, Joyce and Currys, eds. The Botany and Chemistry of Cannabis. (Proc. Ciba Foundation Conference, April 9-10, 1969). Churchill, London. 1-10.
6.Watt, George. 1889. Dictionary of the Economic Products of India. Calcutta 2:105.
7.Wright, Andrew. 1918. Wisconsin's Hemp Industry. Wisconsin Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin #293. p.5.
8.The definitive discussion of the botany of Cannabis is a two-volume work by Dr. Ernest Small appropriately titled, The Species Problem in Cannabis: Science and Semantics. Small. E. 1979. The Species Problem in Cannabis. Corpus, Canada. Dr. Ernest Small, B.A., B.Sc. (Hons.), M.Sc.(Carelton), Ph.D. (U.C.L.A.) currently holds the position of Principal Research Scientist, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Eastern Cereal and Oilseed Research Centre in Ottawa.
9.Both were previously classified to Moraceae.
10.Small, E. 1997. Cannabaceae. In Flora of North America, North of Mexico, vol. 3, 381-387. Flora North America Editorial Committee, ed. Oxford University Press, New York. 1997.
11.Mechoulam R., 1970. Marijuana Chemistry. Science 168: 1159-1166.
An interesting historical footnote: There was some confusion about whether hemp contained high levels of THC during the 1930s. The Bureau of Narcotics designated industrial hemp of Kentucky lineage to be marijuana through the use of an assay called the Beam Test. This test was later shown to detect CBD, not THC. See West, David P. 1994. Fiber Wars: The Extinction of Kentucky Hemp (available online) and Mechoulam, R. 1968. Hashish XIII: On the nature of the Beam Test.Tetrahedron 24 :5615-5624. This unfortunate "technical error" caused the demise of an emerging industry in Minnesota and Illinois. The firms included Chempco, Inc., Winona, MN; Cannabis, Inc., Winona, MN; Amhempco Corporation, Danville, IL. Winona Republican Herald, Dec 31, 1937; also see Popular Science ,"A Billion Dollar Crop," 1938. Studies on the feral remnant of the Kentucky Hemp strain grown here for fiber have shown that its THC level was very low, on the order of 0.5 percent and less. See #41.
12.Fournier, Gilbert. 1981.Les Chimiotypes du Chanvre (Cannabis sativa L.) Interet pour un Programme de selection," Agronomie 1:679-88.
13.Musty, R.E., Karniol, I.G., Shirakawa, I., Takahashi, R.N., and Knoebel, E. Interactions of D9-THC and cannabinol in man. In Braude, M.C. and Szara, S. (Eds.) Pharmacology of Marijuana. New York: Raven Press, 1976, 559-564.
Karniol, I.G., Shirakawa, I., Takahashi, R.N., Knoebel, E., and Musty, R.E. Effects of D9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabinol in man. Pharmacology, 1975, 13, 502-512.
Zuardi, A.W., Finkelfarb, E., Bueno, O.F.A., Musty, R.E. and Karniol, I.G. Cannabidiol effects on discriminative responses between delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol and control solution in rats. Archives Internationales de Pharmacodynamie et de Therapie, 1981, 249, 137-46.
14.Musty, R.E. Marijuana is not simply delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol. Technical report submitted to the National Academy of Sciences, Institute of Medicine, 1997.
15.Dr. Mahlberg holds one of only two licenses issued by the DEA that allows for research with live Cannabis plants. See Turner, J. C., P. G. Mahlberg, V. Lanyon, and J. Pleszczynska. 1984. A temporal study of cannabinoid composition in continual clones of Cannabis sativa L. (Cannabaceae) Bot. Gaz. 146:32-38.
16.Nahas, G. Marihuana in Science and Medicine. New York:Raven Press. 1984. pg 31.
17.Dr. Mahmoud ElSohly, Director of the NIDA Marijuana Project at the University of Mississippi-Oxford, personal communication. February 2, 1998
18.Pub. L. No 75-238.
19.Taxation of Marihuana, Hearings Before the House Committee on Ways and Means on H.R. 6385, 75th Cong. 1st Sess. 8 (l937).
20.Thomas Ballanco, The Colorado Hemp Production Act of 1995: Farms and Forests Without Marijuana, 66 University of Colorado Law Review, 101, 107(1996)
21.18 U.S. T. 1408, 21 U.S. C. paragraph 801(7)
22.UN Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances, 1961.
23.18 U.S. T. 1408, Article 28(2).
24.Controlled Substances Act, Food & Drug Admin. (1970) Chapt. 22, Sec. 802-15. Custom Regulations of the United States, Official U.S. Custom House Guide, 1987. sec. 302.58 --CR-360.
25.Executive Order 12919, June 3, 1994, 59 Fed. Reg 29525.
26.Vantreese, V. 1997. Industrial Hemp: Global Markets and Prices, University of Kentucky-Louisville.
27.Pierce, W. M. Jr., Ph.D., Professor Pharmacology, University of Kentucky-Louisville, letter to Andy Graves, President, Kentucky Hemp Growers' Cooperative Association, January 24, 1997.
28.See below for further discussion of feral hemp.
30.Zimmer, Lynn and John P. Morgan. 1997. Marijuana Myths, Marijuana Facts: A Review Of The Scientific Evidence Zimmer. The Lindesmith Center. p.134.
31.Wisconsin Dept of Narcotics Enforcement, Strategic Intelligence Division. 1997. "Industrial Marijuana (Hemp) Information Paper"
32.Robert C. Clarke, International Hemp Association, writing to Jean Peart, Manager, Hemp Project, Health Canada, January, 1998.
33.Dr. Paul Mahlberg, Indiana University -Bloomington, Dept Biology, to Russ Weisensel, Wisconsin Agribusiness Council, April 7, 1997.
34.Dr. Mahlberg has made inquiry to law enforcement agencies to identify instances of illicit labs attempting such an extraction but has yet to learn of any. Dr. Paul Mahlberg, Personal Communication, January 13, 1998.
35.Tomas J. Kujawa, Captain, Special Operations, Marathon County Sheriff's Dept, to Russ Weisensel, Wisconsin Agribusiness Council, April 16, 1997.
36.Dr. Guy Cabral in telephone conversation with the author, January 14, 1998.
37.Bócsa, I. and M. Karus. 1998. The Cultivation of Hemp. HEMPTECH, Inc. Sebastopol, California.
38.Cynthia Thielen, Hawaii State Representative (R), notes from visit with Madame Alice Guiton of the Agence du Medicament, Unite Stupefiants et Psychotropes, Government du France.
39.Health Canada. 1997. Commercial Cultivation of Industrial Hemp, Policy Paper - Executive Summary available online at:
40.Drug Enforcement Administration 21 CFR Ch.II (4-1-92 ed.) 1301.71ff. Security Requirements.
41.Latta, R. P. and B. J. Eaton. 1975. Seasonal fluctuation in Cannabinoid Content of Kansas Marijuana
42.Low, Ian. Hemcore Ltd, UK, speaking to the Third Annual Conference of the North American Industrial Hemp Council, St. Louis, Missouri, Nov 6, 1997.
43.Nevill, Wendy. Drugs Inspector, United Kingdom Home Office, SE Region Drugs Inspectorate, to Larry Thomason, State Representative, Missouri House of Representatives, dated April 23, 1997.
44.Low, op. cit.
45.Vance, Joel M. 1971. Marijuana is for the birds. Outdoor Life. June: p. 53.
46.Reichert, G. 1994. Hemp. Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada Bi-weekly Bulletin 7:23.
47.Struempler, R.E., G. Nelson and F.M. Urry.1997. A positive Cannabinoid Workplace Drug Test Following the Ingestion of Commercially Available Hemp Seed Oil. J. Anal. Tox. 21(4): 283.
Callaway, J.C., R.A. Weeks, L.P. Raymon, H.C. Walls and W.L. Hearn. 1997. Letter to the Editor: A Positive THC Urinalysis From Hemp (Cannabis) Seed Oil. J. Anal. Tox. 21(4): 319.
Lehmann, T., F. Sager and R. Brenneisen Excretion of Cannabinoids in Urine after Ingestion of Cannabis Seed Oil. J. Anal. Tox. 21(5): 373.
48.Industrial Hemp Regulations and amendment to Schedule II of the Controlled Drugs and Substances Act, December 27, 1997. Schedule No. 1089, Section 2, Subsection (3):
"No person shall sell or provide a derivative of industrial hemp or a product made from a derivative of industrial hemp, unless the derivative (a) has been tested at a competent laboratory, in accordance with the methods set out in the Industrial Hemp Technical Manual published by the Department of Health, as amended from time to time, and found to contain less than 10 ug/g THC; and (b) is labelled, 'Contains less than 10 ug/g THC - Contient moins de 10 ug/g de THC.'"